What is Operating System, Component and Types of Operating System ?

What is Operating System, Component and Types of Operating System ?

What is Operating System

  • An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination of activities and the sharing of the resources of the computer.

  • An Operating System (OS) is a set of computer programs that controls and coordinates the operation of computer hardware and acts as an interface with application programs.

  • The OS, which plays a central role in the functioning of the complete computer system, is usually stored on disk. After a computer system is started, or “booted up”, portions of the OS are transferred to memory as they are needed. The collection of programs, collectively called the OS, executes a variety of activities, including:

  • –Performing common computer hardware functions

  • –Providing a user interface

  • –Managing system memory and secondary storage

  • –Managing processing and scheduling tasks

  • –Providing networking capability

–Maintaining security and controlling access to system resources, and

–Managing files.

  • The kernel, is the heart of the OS and controls and regulates the most critical processes. It interfaces, at the micro level, with the underlying machine hardware for getting appropriate services.

Components of the Operating System

  • The kernel, which represents the operating system’s basic functions such as management of memory, processes, files, main inputs/outputs and communication functionalities.

  • The shell, allowing communication with the operating system via a control language, letting the user control the peripherals without knowing the characteristics of the hardware used, management of physical addresses, etc.

  • The file system, allowing files to be recorded in a tree structure.


Types of Operating Systems

  • Real time systems

    used mainly in industry, are systems designed to operate in a time-constrained environment. A real time system must also operate reliably according to specific time constraints; in other words, it must be able to properly process information received at clearly-defined intervals  What is Operating System

Real-time operating system

  • –Very fast small OS

  • –Built into a device

  • –Respond quickly to user input

  • –MP3 players, Medical devices

  • –QNX

  • –RTLinux

  • –Windows CE

Single user/Single tasking OS

  • –One user works on the system

  • –Performs one task at a time

  • –MS-DOS

  • –Take up little space on disk

  • –Run on inexpensive computers

Single user/Multitasking OS

  • User performs many tasks at once

  • Most common form of OS

  • Windows XP and Mac OS

  • Require expensive computers

  • Tend to be complex

Multi user/Multitasking OS

  • Many users connect to one computer

  • Each user has a unique session

  • UNIX, Linux

  • Maintenance can be easy

  • Requires a powerful computer What is Operating System

Related Post

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *